Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Early Iron Furnace in Upper Canada


Lansdowne Iron Works National Historic Site of Canada

In Lyndhurst, Ontario

 Illustration of an early iron furnace - by Edwin Tunis,
from his book Colonial Craftsmen, 1957.

It was known by 1784 that an iron deposit was situated about 2 miles from a 16’ waterfall on the Gananoque River.  After prolonged competition for the privilege of opening an iron smelter, in 1800 the Executive Council of Upper Canada gave their blessing to the proposal by Wallis Sunderlin of Tinmouth Vermont. By 1802 a water powered blast furnace was in operation on the east bank of the river, and 1200 acres of land were granted to Sunderlin to supply charcoal for the furnace. At the same time a bridge was built across the river, a saw mill erected, and a forge with trip hammer was built on the west bank to manufacture wrought iron for the Royal Navy dockyards at Kingston, as well as local blacksmiths. At its height, it was said to produce a ton of cast iron per day and 400 lbs of wrought iron. The location became known as Furnace Falls, and boasted a hotel with a 10 gallon still, and several houses. A grist mill had been added before the whole industrial complex was destroyed by fire in 1811. Wallis Sunderlin died the same year. The iron works was never rebuilt. This was the first iron smelter in Upper Canada.
In 1828 new saw and grist mills were built on the east bank. In 1846, Furnace Falls was renamed Lyndhurst. In 1857 a beautiful stone 3-arch bridge was built over the river very close by, which is now the oldest bridge in Ontario. By 1870 there were sawmills and grist mills on both sides of the river, and in 1912 a hydro generator was installed in the mill on the west bank. The last remnants of the furnace stack were demolished in 1881 to build a new grist mill on the east bank, which was demolished in 1967. The mills on the west bank burned down in 1953.
In 1932 the Historic Sites and Monuments Board designated it a National Historic Site and erected a stone cairn in 1935. In 2008 a Stage 1 Archaeological report was written and the site registered on the Ontario registry as BdGa-37. In late 2016, the Township of Leeds & 1000 Islands purchased the west bank for parkland and possible archaeological exploration.
Sesquicentennial Archaeological project
In the Spirit of Canada’s Sesquicentennial, The Municipal Heritage Committee for Leeds & 1000 Islands, in conjunction with the Lyndhurst Rejuvenation Committee, proposes to conduct Archaeological Research on the properties described in the Stage 1 Report of 2008. An application is being prepared to Parks Canada for a Cost Sharing Program which will pay 50% of the cost up to $25,000. We have to raise an equal amount to match the grant.
from 'The Blacksmith in Upper Canada' by William Wylie (scan from photocopy!)

Archeology Update Jan 30
Pledges have been coming in steadily since the forms were posted on line. We have passed the threshold where we can launch a project for 2017, assuming Parks Canada support, but it would be small, and would leave more to be accomplished in future stages. Our goal is to have a two-week dig. ...

This is the kind of project that builds communities. It builds on previous accomplishments in the community, beginning in 1932 with the granting of National Historic Site status to the Lansdowne Iron Works, saving the Lyndhurst Bridge in 1985/86, commissioning the book “Rear of Leeds & Lansdowne 1796-1996” by Glenn Lockwood, and writing the Stage 1 Archeological Report in 2008, not to mention the designated blacksmith shop, four historic plaques and one interpretive sign in the same area. Some of these events contribute greater significance to the location, while others were prerequisites to the archeology now proposed and the funding we are now eligible to apply for.
As we said in our presentation to Council last Nov. 7, the long-term vision is to have an interpretive center incorporated into the newly purchased township park land on the west side of the river below the bridge; here to tell the story and show the artifacts, and create a small attraction to the village and area. In getting to that goal, the process itself will be an exercise in community building, by raising the funds for the archeology in the community, and by getting local people involved in the actual archeology. We have built into the project the opportunity for volunteers to participate with trowels and whisks, under the direction of the archeologist, digging up their own history.
Our goal for this year (it will continue for a couple of years) is $22,000, of which we now have pledges for 40%. Please help us out and show your pride in the community and our history and our Sesquicentennial. 
To support this project - contact :
Art Shaw 
3367 County Rd 3, RR 1 
Lyndhurst, ON. K0E 1N0
--> artshaw@ripnet.com  
The pledge forms are here:  www.deltamill.org/ironworks

This in from Art on February 13:

"Last Monday night, Leeds & 1000 Islands Township Council voted unanimously to support the project and be the applicant for the Parks Canada Cost Share Program."

The next step is for Art and the Township Treasurer to complete and submit the formal proposal to Parks Canada. 

Sunday, January 15, 2017

ESP / Canada 2017

In addition to my submission for the open Elora Sculpture Project seen yesterday, I also prepared a submission specifically for the Canada 2017 competition there: 

In celebration of the Canada’s 150th year since Confederation, the Township of Centre Wellington in partnership with Elora Sculpture Project will purchase up to two sculptures to remain on permanent display in the community.
For consideration in this program the works must:

2. Be created by a Canadian resident and:
 Celebrate Canada, it’s history, geography, peoples or culture, or
 Convey the artist’s thoughts and feelings on being Canadian at this moment in time, or
 Convey aspirations for, or visions of, times yet to come.

History in the Wind

What is the weather? One of the defining characteristics of Canadians everywhere has been our discussion (often complaints) about the weather. Through Canada’s long history, weather vanes have had symbolic meaning, with specific cultural / regional styles. 
Over the decades, with my connection to museums throughout Canada, weathervanes have been a area of both interest and work. This has included reproductions of specific artifacts, new work inside historic design traditions, and extension into my own ‘windbile’ series of sculptural objects.

‘History in the Wind’, overall, consists of a series of individual elements, representing various historical and cultural traditions, stacked chronologically one above another on a central support. In this the rough form also echoes First Nations ‘totem pole’ memorials.

1) The Land - As Canadians, again almost universally, we are strongly tied to place. Since the Canadian Shield runs under almost all our country - and almost links the whole country side to side, a block of granite forms the base of the sculpture. I have proposed random piece of glacier dragged and smoothed stone - here representing the Land before the advent of humans.

2) First Nations - Obviously the First Nations Peoples inhabited the Land for thousands of years before the recent history of Canada. For at least Eastern Peoples, the Turtle is important in traditions about the creation of the world. Here the figure of Turtle is rendered in a thick slab of simply surface carved wood. This element, although mobile, is not balanced to shift under anything but the most harsh of winds. This is intentional, representing the long duration of First Nation’s traditional beliefs.

3) The Norse - The Scandinavians of the late Viking Age were the first Europeans to travel to our East Coast, although admittedly only with a brief stay. Bronze Weather Boards like this element were fixed to the ship’s prow, with weighted ribbons moving to indicate wind direction and speed. The figure punched into the metal surface is the World Serpent, thought to entwine the World. *

4) Early Europeans - The first European voyages to their ‘New World’ start in the early 1500’s, what is really the end of the Medieval period. At this time, the ‘Banner’ design was common. The element was created out of individually hand forged bars, the whole riveted together - the construction method chosen here. The date of 1605 represents the founding Champlain’s original settlement at Port Royal in Nova Scotia.

5) Quebec - The most common early Canadian weather vane is the rooster or cock. With its ties to Christian symbolism, this remained especially true in Quebec. The historic samples range from simple sheet iron cut outs, carved wood, and hammered tin plate and elaborate copper sheet. The Weathercock seen here, executed in copper, is based one from Saint Georges.

6) Upper Canada - As settlement moved westward into what is now Ontario, the taste of the English speaking immigrants effected choice of design, with the Horse becoming one of the most popular. The development of the first cutting torches, it became possible to easily cut heavy steel sheet. The pattern here is loosely based on a number of vanes from Central Ontario.

7) Into the Future - As time progressed, commercial stamped weathervanes, sized as decoration rather than function, started to replace the larger often self made figures. With the shift (in my own life time) of Canada from primarily a rural to primarily urban dwellers, people are increasingly cut off from even being able to feel the wind at all. Increasingly, suburban home owners were able to install simple weather forecasting instruments. This includes the spinning cups of the Anemometer, to measure wind speed. For the top element the form of this functional instrument is warped to create an element as much eye catching as useful. It incorporates six spiral shaped individual arms, each with a inserted moving ball element

- The installed sculpture will stand roughly 9 feet about the base mount.
- The individual elements all shift with the wind, the widest being the Banner, at roughly 5 feet above ground level and sweeping out roughly a five foot diameter circle (so 2 1/2 feet each direction from the base).

Asking Price for ‘History in the Wind’ can only be estimated at this point.
Rough Quote = $3500

* Some might question of my inclusion of the Norse, at the possible cost of an element representing 1900's / Western Canada.
This was done for a number of reasons:
1) What do you use to represent a weather vane for the West? Figures of cattle are typical, but within the overall design, such a figure is too repetitive above the Upper Canada / Horse. Another possibility might be a tractor, which I did consider.
2) I was attempting to look a very wide patches of Canadian history, again attempting to illustrate 'founding' elements. (Ok - this might preclude the Norse too.)
3) There is the graphic flow from the base upwards. The individual elements are getting increasingly 'realistic' as the sequence moves up. To the obvious break of a potential future - unknown.
4) Hey - I * AM * 'the Viking Guy'....

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Elora Sculpture Project 2017

The following is an portion of my submission to this year's Elora Sculpture Project: 

‘Hello / Goodbye’

This is a simpler piece than in previous years. I continue to explore the concept of wind powered / moving sculptures. Within the larger grouping of works part of ESP, I feel objects that incorporate motion can serve to capture the public’s attention.

‘Hello / Goodbye’  consists of a set of five individual mounted elements. With the base structure, the overall impression is of a stylized hand raised in greeting, the individual fingers waggling. Each ‘finger’ is a long slender, slightly curved rod, ending in an elongated oval ‘finger nail’ formed of stainless steel sheet. Each sheet ‘nail’ is slightly dished and mounted at slightly different angles to capture the wind. Each of the ‘fingers’ ends in a heavy mass of steel, which functions as a counterweight. These masses start as disks cut from solid 3 inch (plus?) mild steel, which are then compressed via forging to more irregular shapes.

The framing element, suggestive of the open palm, supports a central pivot. The ‘fingers’ are mounted along the pivot bar, allowing for motion front to back, but not side to side.  The paired top bars of the frame limit the travel of the fingers. In wind, the ‘nail’ surfaces react with the wind to move the ‘fingers’ from rest, with the counter balance weights reacting to swing each back and forth - ‘waggling’ the fingers.

Overall, ‘Hello / Goodbye’ will stand about 8 feet tall when mounted. At the mounting ‘palm’, the size is about 3 feet tall by about 24 + inches wide. The moving counterweights sweep out about  12 - 14 inches of depth. At the top edge, the individual ‘fingers’ will splay out to about 3 - 4 feet wide. In motion, the very top edges will move through roughly 3 - 4 feet of depth.

Asking Price for ‘Hello / Goodbye’ can only be estimated at this point, but is expected to be roughly $1500.

I have submitted (and been chosen to display) work for the ESP from 2013 through 2016:
2013 - ‘Layers’
2014 - ‘Spears of Summer’
2015 - ‘Armoured Fish’
2016 - ‘Barrel Turbine’

Checking past postings / search would give you the submissions and images of the final works as installed

Saturday, December 31, 2016


Tentative Dates* for 2017 Basic level courses: 


March 11 & 12 = Introduction to Smithing - two spaces only / work with propane forge

March 25 & 26 = Build a Zombie Killer - four spaces / consider an 'experience' style program

April 7 / 8 / 9 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

May 5 / 6 / 7 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

June 2 / 3 / 4 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

* July - no courses scheduled (possible presentation at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC)

* August - no courses scheduled (possible trip to Scotland)

* Should either of these projects not be carried out, it is possible there may be programs placed on the schedule for those months.

September 8 / 9 / 10 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

October 13 / 14 / 15 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

November 10 / 11 / 12 = Introduction to Smithing - four spaces

December 9 & 10 = Introduction to Smithing - two spaces only / work with propane forge


At this point I have already filled one program completely (May 27 & 28 - Zombie Killer), and I have five deposits already in hand (made as Yule gifts).
Based on the experience of previous years, available dates fill quickly!

First deposit = first booked!

February 15 - May 15, 2012 : Supported by a Crafts Projects - Creation and Development Grant

COPYRIGHT NOTICE - All posted text and images @ Darrell Markewitz.
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